1872 discharge for 'Buffalo Soldier' 10th US Cavalry Fort Sill (Indian Territory)

Final Statement of Louis Porter a Private of Captain George T. Robinson’s Company E of the 10th Regiment of US Cav., born in Lynchburg in the State of Virginia, aged 21 years 5 feet 6 1/3 inches high, Black complexion, Black eyes, Black hair, and by occupation a laborer, was enlisted by Capt. Davis, at Memphis Tenn., on the First day of May, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, to serve for 5 years, who is now entitled to a discharge by reason of Expiration of term of Service.

..was last paid by Paymaster Major___ to include the 29th day of February, eighteen hundred and seventy two, and has pay due form that time to this present date.

  • There is due to him sixty dollars retained pay
  • He is indebted to the United States One 37/100 dollars on account of extra clothing
  • He is indebted to the United States for tobacco $1.98
  • The cost of the ration at this post is 30 cents.

 Signed at Fort Sill IT (Indian Territory) 1st May 1872 by George T Robinson Captain 10th Cavalry

On reverse, rules that apply to this form, then:

For value received I hereby transfer these final statements to J.S. Evans _ , signed with ‘X’ beside ‘Lewis Porter

Witnessed by me and I certify that this transfer has been noted on the soldiers discharge T.J. Spencer 1st  Lt. 10th Cav.

Nice condition. Folded in three horizontally. Slight paper loss on one fold.

8 1/4" X 11" /  21 X 28 cm.

 

Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. This nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought in the Indian Wars.

Fort Sill, Oklahoma is a United States Army post north of Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City. The site of Fort Sill was staked out on 8 January 1869 (factual evidence of actual date needed), by Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan, who led a campaign into Indian Territory to stop hostile tribes from raiding border settlements in Texas and Kansas.

George T. Robinson - court-martialed for fraud in 1875 , dishonorable discharge

The 10th U.S. Cavalry was formed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, in 1866 as an all-African-American regiment. The 10th U.S. Cavalry regiment was composed of black enlisted men and white officers, which was typical for that era. By the end of July 1867, eight companies of enlisted men had been recruited from the Departments of Missouri, Arkansas, and the Platte. Life at Leavenworth was not pleasant for the 10th Cavalry. The fort's commander, who was openly opposed to African-Americans serving in the Regular Army, made life for the new troops difficult. Colonel Benjamin Grierson sought to have his regiment transferred, and subsequently received orders moving the regiment to Fort Riley, Kansas. This began on the morning of 6 August 1867 and was completed the next day in the afternoon of 7 August.

One of the first battles of the 10th was the Battle of the Saline River. This battle occurred 25 miles northwest of Fort Hays in Kansas near the end of August 1867. After a railroad work party was wiped out, patrols from the 38th Infantry Regiment (in 1869 reorganized into the 24th Infantry Regiment) with a 10th Cavalry troop were sent out to locate the "hostile" Cheyenne forces.

In 1867 and 1868, the 10th Cavalry participated in Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's winter campaigns against the Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Comanches. Units of the 10th prevented the Cheyenne from fleeing to the northwest, thus allowing Custer and the 7th Cavalry to defeat them at the decisive battle near Fort Cobb, Indian Territory.

For the next eight years, the 10th was stationed at numerous forts throughout Kansas and Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), including Fort Gibson starting in 1872. They provided guards for workers of the Kansas and Pacific Railroad, strung miles of new telegraph lines, and to a large extent built Fort Sill. Throughout this period, they were constantly patrolling the reservations and engaging "hostiles" in an attempt to prevent Indian raids into Texas.

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